Prostate Cancer

What is Prostate Cancer?

The prostate is a gland that lies just below the bladder in front of the rectum. It produces fluid that forms part of semen.

Almost all prostate cancers begin in the cells that make fluid. This type of cancer is called adenocarcinoma.  Other more rare types of prostate cancer include sarcomas, small cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, and transitional cell carcinomas.

Most types of prostate cancers grow slowly, although some can grow and spread quickly.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United States after skin cancer.

Risk Factors

  • African ancestry
  • Certain inherited genetic conditions
  • Family history of the disease
  • Increasing age

Studies indicate that obesity and smoking do not increase the risk of developing prostate cancer but may increase the chance of developing a more aggressive form of the disease.

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

Most men with early prostate cancer don’t have any signs or symptoms.  One reason for this is the way the cancer grows. You’ll usually only get early symptoms if the cancer grows near the tube you urinate through (the urethra) and presses against it, changing the way you urinate (pee). But because prostate cancer usually starts to grow in a different part of the prostate, early prostate cancer doesn’t often press on the urethra and cause symptoms.

If you do notice changes in the way you urinate, this is more likely to be a sign of a very common non-cancerous problem called an enlarged prostate. or another health problem. But it’s still a good idea to get it checked out.

Possible changes include:

▪ difficulty starting to urinate or emptying your bladder
▪ a weak flow when you urinate
▪ a feeling that your bladder hasn’t emptied properly
▪ dribbling urine after you finish urinating
▪ needing to urinate more often, especially at night
▪ a sudden urge to urinate – you may sometimes leak before you get to the toilet.